Thursday, January 8, 2009

Rokok Sebabkan Produksi Sperma Turun

Bagi pasangan suami istri yang ingin mempunyai momongan namun tidak kunjung datang juga, ada baiknya jika Anda berhenti merokok atau menghindari paparan rokok. Selain sederet efek negatif rokok, rokok juga dapat mengakibatkan produksi sperma pada lelaki lebih rendah.

Prof. Dr. dr Wahyuning Ramelan SPand (Spesialis Andrologi) Brawijaya Women & Children Hospital mengatakan berdasarkan penelitian kasar yang dilakukan terhadap lelaki yang merokok dan tidak merokok hasilnya adalah lelaki merokok cenderung memiliki sperma yang lebih rendah dibandingkan lelaki yang tidak merokok.

Kriteria sperma yang baik berdasarkan WHO, memiliki volume antara 2 sampai 5 mililiter (ml) sekali keluar. Sedang lelaki sangat subur memiliki lebih dari 200 juta sel sperma sekali keluar.

"Memang sampai kini belum ada penelitian resmi dan angka akurat pada manusia mengenai pengaruh rokok ini. Tetapi memang ada faktor," kata dr Ramelan, di sela diskusi Mendambakan Punya Momongan, di Brawijaya Women & Children Hospital, Jakarta, Sabtu (13/12).

Hal yang sama juga terjadi pada penelitian yang dilakukan pada hewan coba. Menurut dr Ramelan, jika hewan coba diberi paparan rokok, pada hewan coba jantan akan mengalami penurunan produksi sperma. Selain itu, kecenderungan memiliki anak dengan cacat bawaan juga cenderung meningkat dibanding hewan coba yang tidak diberi paparan rokok.

"Sebaiknya hindari paparan rokok. Karena kita juga tidak tahu sensitifitas kita. Setiap individu kan beda-beda," tuturnya.

Sumber :

You are responsible for the success of your job search. Other people can help you along the way, but ultimately it is up to you. Here are some tips on how to achieve your goal of getting a new job:

Stay positive
You can expect to sometimes have negative emotions during a long job search and it may seem difficult to remain positive.

Keep your spirits up by:

making sure you are still doing the things that relax you and make you happy such as exercise, spending time with friends and enjoying hobbies and interests.
taking time to dream. To offset some of the negative thoughts and feelings that may creep in when you've been job searching for a while, spend some time thinking about the future you would like to create for yourself.

joining a support group. Contact career advisors in private business, educational institutions and community organisations and ask for leads to support groups that can help you maintain a positive attitude.

setting up a positive support system. Talk to your family and friends and let them know what they can do. Work out who is prepared to support you and let them know what they can do to help. For example, you may need feedback on a cover letter, an opinion on interview clothes, childcare or just someone to talk to.

Be adaptable
Be open to the possibility that your next job might be two or three part-time jobs or contract work. Accept that the world of work has changed so that you don't shut yourself off from opportunities.

Think about the skills and expertise you can contribute to a potential employer's success, rather than a certain job title or role (for example, 'I'm a shoe salesperson'). Stay open to new ideas, think creatively and take risks.

Be persistent and patient
One of the main reasons people don't achieve their career objective is that they give up too early. Job searching is hard work and there are times when you will get discouraged.

If your search is not producing the results that you would like, avoid blaming yourself and try a different way of doing things.

Remember to also be patient. Your best efforts will not always produce immediate results. Don't take it personally when employers take their time in responding to your call or application - many are very busy.

Keep focused
Just about anything will sound better than looking for work, but don't get distracted.

Your priority is to find that new job. Be willing to explore and pursue every job lead, but focus your time and efforts on quality leads. The quality of leads and the quality of the effort matters more than the quantity.

Develop a routine
Work out a job search routine and stick to it. It will help you stay motivated and focused. If you are unemployed you may find it helpful to structure your day by:

developing a schedule and sticking to it
setting your alarm clock to get up
dressing like you would for work.
Plan your week
Set aside certain days, or certain hours of the day, for your job searching. Keep in mind the core business hours of the desired industry.

Be consistent in the amount of time you spend each week looking for a job. Regular effort is more likely to bring rewards.

Write 'to do' lists to keep you on target - a weekly one at the start of the week and a daily one every morning.

Prioritise, but ensure balance. On a typical day you should work on all parts of your job search (for example, generating new leads, following up leads, writing application letters and preparing for interviews).

You might find that you are more effective at some tasks at certain times of the day. For example, write application letters when your mind is fresh and energy levels high.

Set goals
Identify what you plan to accomplish. For example, if you set 9am to 12 noon Monday for responding to weekend newspaper advertisements, your goal could be to write five letters of application. Tuesday morning's goal could be registering with four labour hire companies, and 1pm to 4pm may be scheduled for making direct telephone contacts.

Be realistic, but challenge yourself. When you set a schedule make sure it is one that can be achieved. As you perform your tasks you will feel a sense of control and accomplishment.

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