Thursday, January 8, 2009

Makin Gemuk, Sperma Makin Sedikit

PRIA yang kegemukan ternyata punya kemungkinan tiga kali lebih besar memiliki lebih sedikit sperma dibandingkan dengan pria dengan berat tubuh normal. Hal itu disimpulkan dari studi yang disiarkan di Jurnal Fertility and Sterility dan dikutip Xinhua.

"Pria dengan bobot berat menghadapi resiko tiga kali lipat memiliki sedikit sperma motil progresif," ungkap temuan studi Dr. Ahmad O. Hammoud dari University of Utah, Salt Lake City, dan rekannya.

"Ada hubungan kuat antara kelebihan berat badan serta kegemukan dan perubahan parameter sperma," kata Hammoud dan timnya.

Kegemukan mungkin merusak kesuburan pada pria, kata para peneliti tersebut, sementara peningkatan lemak tubuh dapat memberi sumbangan pada tingkat tertosterone yang lebih rendah dan tingkat estrogen yang lebih tinggi.

Untuk mengkaji bagaimana indeks massa tubuh (BMI) mempengaruhi kualitas sperma, mereka mengevaluasi 390 pria yang berusaha menjalani perawatan kesuburan dengan pasangan mereka selama kurun waktu dua tahun.

Sebanyak 24 persen pria memiliki berat normal, sedangkan 43 persen memiliki kelebihan berat badan, dan 33 persen kegemukan. Secara keseluruhan, 10.5 persen memiliki sedikit jumlah sperma.

Prevalensi jumlah sperma yang rendah muncul saat BMI meningkat; pria kegemukan 3,3 kali lebih mungkin untuk memiliki sedikit jumlah sperma dibandingkan dengan pria dengan berat normal.

Risiko memiliki sedikit jumlah sperma mobil progresif juga naik sejalan dengan BMI; pria yang sangat gemuk 3,4 kali lebih mungkin dibandingkan dengan pria bertubuh normal untuk memiliki sedikit jumlah sperma mobil progresif.

Pria yang bertubuh sangat gemuk juga 1,6 kali lipat lebih mungkin memiliki sperma berbentuk tidak normal jika dibandingkan dengan pria yang kelebihan berat badan atau berat normal.

Kenyataan itu membuat lebih mungkin bahwa kelompok studi tersebut memiliki kualitas sperma yang lebih buruk dibandingkan pria pada umumnya, kata Hammoud dan rekannya.

Sumber :

You are responsible for the success of your job search. Other people can help you along the way, but ultimately it is up to you. Here are some tips on how to achieve your goal of getting a new job:

Stay positive
You can expect to sometimes have negative emotions during a long job search and it may seem difficult to remain positive.

Keep your spirits up by:

making sure you are still doing the things that relax you and make you happy such as exercise, spending time with friends and enjoying hobbies and interests.
taking time to dream. To offset some of the negative thoughts and feelings that may creep in when you've been job searching for a while, spend some time thinking about the future you would like to create for yourself.

joining a support group. Contact career advisors in private business, educational institutions and community organisations and ask for leads to support groups that can help you maintain a positive attitude.

setting up a positive support system. Talk to your family and friends and let them know what they can do. Work out who is prepared to support you and let them know what they can do to help. For example, you may need feedback on a cover letter, an opinion on interview clothes, childcare or just someone to talk to.

Be adaptable
Be open to the possibility that your next job might be two or three part-time jobs or contract work. Accept that the world of work has changed so that you don't shut yourself off from opportunities.

Think about the skills and expertise you can contribute to a potential employer's success, rather than a certain job title or role (for example, 'I'm a shoe salesperson'). Stay open to new ideas, think creatively and take risks.

Be persistent and patient
One of the main reasons people don't achieve their career objective is that they give up too early. Job searching is hard work and there are times when you will get discouraged.

If your search is not producing the results that you would like, avoid blaming yourself and try a different way of doing things.

Remember to also be patient. Your best efforts will not always produce immediate results. Don't take it personally when employers take their time in responding to your call or application - many are very busy.

Keep focused
Just about anything will sound better than looking for work, but don't get distracted.

Your priority is to find that new job. Be willing to explore and pursue every job lead, but focus your time and efforts on quality leads. The quality of leads and the quality of the effort matters more than the quantity.

Develop a routine
Work out a job search routine and stick to it. It will help you stay motivated and focused. If you are unemployed you may find it helpful to structure your day by:

developing a schedule and sticking to it
setting your alarm clock to get up
dressing like you would for work.
Plan your week
Set aside certain days, or certain hours of the day, for your job searching. Keep in mind the core business hours of the desired industry.

Be consistent in the amount of time you spend each week looking for a job. Regular effort is more likely to bring rewards.

Write 'to do' lists to keep you on target - a weekly one at the start of the week and a daily one every morning.

Prioritise, but ensure balance. On a typical day you should work on all parts of your job search (for example, generating new leads, following up leads, writing application letters and preparing for interviews).

You might find that you are more effective at some tasks at certain times of the day. For example, write application letters when your mind is fresh and energy levels high.

Set goals
Identify what you plan to accomplish. For example, if you set 9am to 12 noon Monday for responding to weekend newspaper advertisements, your goal could be to write five letters of application. Tuesday morning's goal could be registering with four labour hire companies, and 1pm to 4pm may be scheduled for making direct telephone contacts.

Be realistic, but challenge yourself. When you set a schedule make sure it is one that can be achieved. As you perform your tasks you will feel a sense of control and accomplishment.

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